The CCNA 200-301 exam is a challenging test, and one of its vital topics is the Introduction to TCP/IP Transport and Applications. This article will provide an overview of TCP/IP, walking through the protocols, ports, and applications involved, as well as how they all fit together in a functioning network.
What is TCP/IP?
TCP/IP, which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a set of communication protocols used to facilitate the transmission of data over the Internet. It is the primary network protocol suite used to allow user devices, such as computers, to communicate over the Internet.
The protocol suite was developed by the United States Department of Defense in the 1970's, and since then it has become the primary protocol used by computers in order to access the Internet. The suite of protocols is composed of four layers: the Network Access layer, the Internet layer, the Transport layer, and the Application layer.
Network Access Layer
The Network Access Layer is responsible for connecting user devices to the physical network media, such as a network cable. This layer is responsible for determining how data will be sent over the network, and it also defines the media access control protocol for the network.
The Internet layer is responsible for data routing. This layer identifies the paths that data will take over the network, and it also handles packet fragmentation. At this layer, the IP protocol is used to identify hosts on the network, and the ICMP protocol is used for network diagnostic tasks.
The Transport layer is responsible for end-to-end data transmission. It is responsible for providing reliable data transmission over the network, and it also handles port numbers, which are used to identify applications running on the hosts. The primary protocol used at the Transport layer is TCP.
The Application layer is responsible for providing the actual applications that are used by users. The applications use the network protocols, such as TCP and IP, in order to communicate across the network. Common applications that use TCP/IP include web browsers, email clients, FTP clients, and SSH clients.
In order for applications to communicate over the network, they must use specific port numbers. Port numbers are used to identify the applications running on the hosts, and the applications use these ports in order to send and receive data over the network.
The most common ports for TCP/IP are port 21 (FTP), port 22 (SSH), port 23 (Telnet), port 25 (SMTP), port 53 (DNS), port 80 (HTTP), port 110 (POP3), and port 443 (HTTPS). These ports are commonly used by applications in order to communicate over the network.
The Introduction to TCP/IP Transport and Applications is an important topic that is covered on the CCNA 200-301 exam. This article provides an overview of TCP/IP, walking through the protocols, ports, and applications involved, as well as how they all fit together in a functioning network. Understanding the basics of TCP/IP is essential for passing the exam, and with dedication, practice, and resources such as those offered by AlphaPrep, you’ll be ready to take on the challenge.